morphological abnormalities in peripheral blood film

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tear drops cell (dacrocytes) - myelofibrosis






helmet cells and fragmented cell (schistocytes) - microangiopathic haemolysis





pencil cells (cigar cells) - IDA (with hypochocmic microcytic)





elliptocytosis




sickle cells




spherocytes - hereditary spherocytes, haemolysis (any cause)




codocytes (target cells) - liver disease, post splenectomy, IDA, thalassaemias, sickle cell disease





polychromasia - reticulocytosis





Howell - Jolly bodies - splenectomy, hyposplenism, megaloblastic anaemia,





Heinz body - G6PD, splenectomy





blister cells/ bite cells (degmacyte) - G6PD





cabot rings - pernicious anaemia, lead poisoning





knizocytes - hemolytic anaemia





rouleaux formation - multiple myeloma




Acanthocyes (spur cells) - abetalipoproteinaemia, liver disease, hypothyrodism





echinocytes (burr cells) - uaremia





basophilic stipling - lead poisoning, thalassemia





stomatocytes - hereditary stomatocytosis



Auer rod - AML




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