[Mnemonic] Melanoma and their staging

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The mnemonic of ABCDE regarding characteristics of a melanoma are as follows:
A - Asymmetry - one half of the lesion does not match
the other half
B - Border irregularity
C - Colour variegation - pigmentation is not uniform
D - Diameter- a diameter 7 mm warrants investigation
although changes in size are also important
E - Evolution - evolving size or changes in
characteristics such as nodules.


"Clark level" and "Breslow's depth", which refer to the microscopic depth of tumor invasion.[31]
Melanoma stages: 5 year survival rates:
Stage 0: Melanoma in situ (Clark Level I), 99.9% survival
Stage I / II: Invasive melanoma, 85–99% survival
T1a: Less than 1.00 mm primary tumor thickness, without ulceration, and mitosis < 1/mm2
T1b: Less than 1.00 mm primary tumor thickness, with ulceration or mitoses ≥ 1/mm2
T2a: 1.00–2.00 mm primary tumor thickness, without ulceration
Stage II: High risk melanoma, 40–85% survival
T2b: 1.00–2.00 mm primary tumor thickness, with ulceration
T3a: 2.00–4.00 mm primary tumor thickness, without ulceration
T3b: 2.00–4.00 mm primary tumor thickness, with ulceration
T4a: 4.00 mm or greater primary tumor thickness without ulceration
T4b: 4.00 mm or greater primary tumor thickness with ulceration
Stage III: Regional metastasis, 25–60% survival
N1: Single positive lymph node
N2: Two to three positive lymph nodes or regional skin/in-transit metastasis
N3: Four positive lymph nodes or one lymph node and regional skin/in-transit metastases
Stage IV: Distant metastasis, 9–15% survival
M1a: Distant skin metastasis, normal LDH
M1b: Lung metastasis, normal LDH
M1c: Other distant metastasis or any distant metastasis with elevated LDH






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