Fingernails signs

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Clubbing
Inflammatory bowel disease, pulmonary malignancy, asbestosis, chronic bronchitis, COPD, cirrhosis, congenital heart disease, endocarditis, atrioventricular malformations, fistulas


Koilonychia
Iron deficiency anemia, hemochromatosis, Raynaud’s disease, SLE, trauma, nail-patella syndrome


Onycholysis
Psoriasis, infection, hyperthyroidism, sarcoidosis, trauma, amyloidosis, connective tissue disorders



Pitting
Psoriasis, Reiter’s syndrome, incontinentia pigmenti, alopecia areata


Beau’s lines
Any severe systemic illness that disrupts nail growth, Raynaud’s disease, pemphigus, trauma


Yellow nail
Lymphedema, pleural effusion, immunodeficiency, bronchiectasis, sinusitis, rheumatoid arthritis, nephrotic syndrome, thyroiditis, tuberculosis, Raynaud’s disease



Terry’s (white) nails
Hepatic failure, cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, CHF, hyperthyroidism, malnutrition


Azure lunula
Hepatolenticular degeneration (Wilson’s disease), silver poisoning, quinacrine therapy


Half-and-half nails
Specific for renal failure


Muehrcke’s lines
Specific for hypoalbuminemia

Mees’ lines
Arsenic poisoning, Hodgkin’s disease, CHF, leprosy, malaria, chemotherapy, carbon monoxide poisoning, other systemic insults


Dark longitudinal streaks
Melanoma, benign nevus, chemical staining, normal variant in darkly pigmented people

Longitudinal striations
Alopecia areata, vitiligo, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis


Splinter hemorrhage
Subacute bacterial endocarditis, SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, antiphospholipid syndrome, peptic ulcer disease, malignancies, oral contraceptive use, pregnancy, psoriasis, trauma

Telangiectasia
Rheumatoid arthritis, SLE, dermatomyositis, scleroderma


Onychocryptosis
commonly known as "ingrown nails" (unguis incarnatus)

Onychogryposis
also called "ram's-horn nail", is a thickening and increase in curvature of the nail. It is usually the result of injury to the matrix. It may be partially hereditary and can also occur as a result of long-term neglect




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