Bladder Cancer


Bladder cancer is any of several types of malignancy arising from the epithelial lining (i.e. "the urothelium") of the urinary bladder. The bladder is rarely involved by non-epithelial cancers (such as lymphoma or sarcoma).

Signs and symptoms

  • characteristically causes blood in the urine; this may be visible to the naked eye (gross hematuria) or detectable only by microscope (microscopic hematuria). 
  • Other possible symptoms include pain during urination, frequent urination (polyuria) or feeling the need to urinate without results. (Symptoms of UTI)
Risk factors for bladder cancer include

  • Smoking 
  • Exposure to aniline dyes in the printing and textile industry 
  • Rubber manufacture 
  • Cyclophosphamide 
  • Schistosomiasis.
  • It has been suggested that mutations at HRAS, KRAS2, RB1, and FGFR3 may be associated in some cases
TNM (tumor, lymph node, and metastasis) staging system:

  • Stage 0: Cancer cells are found only on the inner lining of the bladder (This stage is also often called Stage Ta). 
  • Stage I: Cancer cells have proliferated to the layer beyond the inner lining of the urinary bladder but not to the muscles of the urinary bladder. 
  • Stage II: Cancer cells have proliferated to the muscles in the bladder wall but not to the fatty tissue that surrounds the urinary bladder. 
  • Stage III: Cancer cells have proliferated to the fatty tissue surrounding the urinary bladder and to the prostate gland, vagina, or uterus, but not to the lymph nodes or other organs. 
  • Stage IV: Cancer cells have proliferated to the lymph nodes, pelvic or abdominal wall, and/or other organs.(Most common lymph node involved is Hypogastric lymph node.) 
  • Recurrent: Cancer has recurred in the urinary bladder or in another nearby organ after having been treated

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